Ports resources


– Airoldi, L. et al. (2005). An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering, 52(10–11), 1073–1087.
– Baptist, M. J. et al. (2019). Beneficial use of dredged sediment to enhance salt marsh development by applying a “Mud Motor”. Ecological Engineering, 127, 312–323.
– De Boer, W. et al. (2019). Mapping the sandy beach evolution around seaports at the scale of the African continent. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(5), 51.
– Kirichek, A. et al. (2018). How navigable are fluid mud layers? Terra et Aqua: International Journal on Public Works, Ports and Waterways Developments, 151, 7–18.
– Muller, J. R. M. et al. (2020). Building for nature: Preserving threatened bird habitat in port design. Water, 12(8), 2134.
– Paalvast, P. et al. (2012). Pole and pontoon hulas: An effective way of ecological engineering to increase productivity and biodiversity in the hard-substrate environment of the port of Rotterdam. Ecological Engineering, 44, 199–209.
– Schoonees, T. et al. (2019). Hard structures for coastal protection, towards greener designs. Estuaries and Coasts 42, 1709–1729.
– Van der Spek, B. J. et al. (2020). Sandbar breakwater: An innovative nature-based port solution. Water, 12(5), 1446.
– Van Eekelen, E. et al. (2016). Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea Harbours. Proceedings of the 21st annual World Dredging Congress (WODCON XXI). Miami, Florida.

Online resources

– PIANC publications—World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure (PIANC) overview webpage for technical publications, including those on Nature-based Solutions and sustainability
– Ports of the Future—Deltares initiative website
– World Ports Sustainability Program—program website focused on implementation of seventeen sustainable development goals