Facilitating coral development



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  • Cooper, T.F., Uthicke, S., Humphrey, C., Fabricius, K.E. (2007). Gradients in water column nutrients, sediment parameters, irradiance and coral reef development in the Whitsunday Region, central Great Barrier Reef. Est. Coast. Shelf Science, 74(3): 458-470.
  • Dollar, S.J. (1982). Wave stress and coral community structure in Hawaii, Coral Reefs, 1(2): 71-81.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Dubinsky, Z., Muscatine, L. and McCloskey, L. (1993). Population control in symbiotic corals. BioScience, 43: 606-611.
  • Fitt, W.K., R.D. Gates, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J.C. Bythell, A. Jatkar, A.G. Grottoli, M. Gomez, P. Fisher, T.C. Lajuenesse, O. Pantos, R. Iglesias-Prieto, D.J. Franklin, L.J. Rodrigues, J.M. Torregiani, R. van Woesik, M.P. Lesser (2009). Response of two species of Indo-Pacific corals, Porites cylindrica and Stylophora pistillata, to short-term thermal stress: The host does matter in determining the tolerance of corals to bleaching. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 373: 102-110.
  • Hallock P. (2001). Coral reefs, carbonate sediment, nutrients, and global change. In: Stanley GD, editor. Ancient reef ecosystems: their evolution, paleoecology and importance in earth history. New York7 Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 388-427.
  • Hallock, P., Müller Karger, F.E., Halas, J.C. (1993). Coral reef decline – anthropogenic nutrients and the degradation of western Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs. Res Explor, 9: 358–378.
  • Harricott, V. and Banks, S. (2002). Latitudinal variation in coral communities in eastern Australia: a qualitative biophysical model of factors regulating coral reefs. Coral Reefs, 21(1): 83-94.
  • Kleypas, J.A., Buddemeier, R.W. and Gattuso, J-P. (2001) The future of coral reefs in an age of global change. Int. J. Earth Sciences 90: 426-437.
  • Kuta, K.G. and Richardson, L.L. (2002). Ecological aspects of black band disease of corals: relationships between disease incidence and environmental factors, Coral Reefs 21: 393-398.
  • McManus, J.W. and Vergara SG (1998). Reef-base: a global database on coral reefs and their resources. Version 3.0 CD-ROM and user’s guide. ICLARM, Manila, 180 pp. In Kleypas et al 2001.
  • Muthiga, N.A. and Szmant A.M., (1987). The effects of salinity stress on the rates of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in the hermatypic coral Siderastrea sidereal, The Biological Bulletin, 173: 539-551.
  • Rutzler, K. et al., (1983). The black band disease of Atlantic reef corals. III. Distribution, Ecology, and Development. PSZNI: Marine Ecology, 4(4): 329-258.
  • Silverman, J., B. Lazar, and J. Erez (2007). Effect of aragonite saturation, temperature, and nutrients on the community calcification rate of a coral reef, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C05004.
  • Steven, A.D.L. and Broadbent, A.D. (1997). Growth and metabolic responses of Acropora prolifera in long term nutrient enrichment. Proc 8th Internat Coral Reef Symp, Panama 1: 867-872.
  • Taylor, D.L. (1983). The black band disease of Atlantic reef corals. II. Isolation, cultivation, and growth of Phormidium coraIlyticum. PSZNI Mar Ecol 4:321.


  • Factors and processes that influence the distribution of corals and coral reefs (Harricott and Banks, 2002).
  • Location of East Coast Park in Singapore. Adapted Google image.
  • Occurence of intertidal coral near ECP coastline in 1953.
    Hilton, M.J. & Manning, S.S. (1995). Conversion of coastal habitats in Singapore: indications of unsustainable development. Environmental Conservation 22, no. 4 (winter 1995), pp. 307-322.
  • Example of bleached with healthy corals in the Mariana Island (Guam, Oceania). Photo David Burdick NOAA.
  • Porites lutea. Great Barrier Reef, Australia. An intertidal ‘micro-atoll’. Photograph: Charlie Veron