Rehabilitating mangrove belts



  • Adame, M.F. et al. (2010). Sedimentation within and among mangrove forests along a gradient of geomorphological settings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86: 21-30.
  • Angsupanich, S. and Havanond, S. (1996). Effects of barnacles on Mangrove seedling transplantation at Ban Don Bay, Southeren Thailand. Proceedings of the FORTROP’96: Tropical Forest in the 21st Century 72-81.
  • Balke, T., Bouma, T.J., Horstman, E.M., Webb, E.L., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Herman, P.M.J. (2011). Windows of opportunity: thresholds to mangrove seedling establishment on tidal flats. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 440: 1-9.
  • Ball, M. C. and Pidsley, S. M. (1995). Growth responses to salinity in relation to distribution of two mangrove species, sonneratia alba and S lanceolat, in Northeren Australia. Functional Ecology 9(1): 77-85.
  • Duke, N.C., Zuleika, S., Pinzon, M., Martha C. and Prada T. (1997). Large-Scale Damage to Mangrove Forests Following Two Large Oil Spills in Panama. Biotropica 29(1): 2-14.
  • Ellison, J.C. (1998). Impacts of Sediment Burial on Mangroves. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37(8-12): 420-426.
  • FAO (2007). The world’s mangroves 1980-2005. ISBN 978-92-5-105856-5.
  • Friess, D.A., Krauss, K.W., Horstman, E.M., Balke, T., Bouma, T.J., Galli, D. and Webb, E.L. (2012) Are all intertidal wetlands created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems. Biological Reviews 87: 346-366.
  • ITTO (2008). Guidelines for the rehabilitation of mangroves and other coastal forests damaged by tsunamis and other Natural Hazards in the Asia-Pacific Region. Mangrove ecosystems proceedings nr 5.
  • Kathiresan, K., Bingham, B.L. (2001). Biology of Mangroves and Mangrove Ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40: 81-251.
  • Kraus, K.W., et al. (2008). Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: A review. Aquatic Botany 89: 05-127.
  • Lee, S.K., Tan, W.H.L. and Havanond, S. (1996). Regeneration of Mangroves on reclaimed land in Singapore. Proceedings of FORTROP’96: Tropical Forestry in the 21st Century 21-35.
  • Loon, van A.F., Dijksma, R. and Mensvoort, van M.E.F. (2007). Hydrological classification in mangrove areas: A case study in Can Gio, Vietnam. Aquatic Botany 87: 80–82.
  • Lovelock, C. E., Ball, M. C., Martin, K. C. and Feller, I. C. (2009). Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5600.
  • Matthijs, S., Tack, J., Speybroeck, van D. and Koedam, N. (1999). Mangrove species zonation and soil redox state, sulphide concentration and salinity in Gazi Bay (Kenya), a preliminary study. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 3 243-249.
  • Othman, M.A. (1994). Value of mangroves in coastal protection. Hydrobiologia 285: 277-282.
  • Santen, van P., Augustinus, P.G.E.F., Janssen-Stelder, B.M., Quartel, S. and Tri, N.H. (2007). Sedimentation in an estuarine mangrove system. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29: 566-575.
  • Spalding, M., Kainuma, M. and Collins, L. (2010). World Atlas of Mangroves. 319. Earthscan, London, UK.
  • Stieglitz, T., Ridd, P. and Müller, P. (2000). Passive irrigation and functional morphology of crustacean burrows in a tropical mangrove swamp. Hydrobiologia 421: 69-76.
  • Tomlinson, P. (1986). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.



  • ‘Mangrove distribution’, world map mangrove distribution, Borrell, B. (2010) Do Mangrove Forests Save Lives?, Nature Conservancy Magazine 31: 43-55.
  • ‘Extent of mangroves’, inter-tidal coral reefs and intertidal sand and mud in 1953. Hilton, M.J. & Manning, S.S. (1995). Conversion of coastal habitats in Singapore: indications of unsustainable development. Environmental Conservation 22(4): 307-322.
  • ‘Sea hibiscus present at ECP (Singapore)’ and ‘Waves arriving at the ECP beach (Singapore)’. Photos by Daniel Martens.