Ecosystem services

Production services

Products that are obtained from ecosystems.
  • Food and fiber – This includes the vast range of food products derived from plants, animals, and microbes, as well as materials such as wood, jute, hemp, silk, and many other products derived from ecosystems.
  • Sources of energy – such as fuel-wood, dung and other biological materials.
  • Genetic resources – this includes the genes and genetic information used for animal and plant breeding and biotechnology.
  • Biochemicals, natural medicines and pharmaceuticals – many medicines, biocides, food additives such as alginates, and biological materials are derived from ecosystems.
  • Ornamental resources – animal products, such as skins and shells, and flowers are used as ornaments, although the value of these resources is often culturally determined. This is an example of linkages between the categories of ecosystem services.
  • Fresh water – another example of linkages between categories, in this case between provisioning and regulating services.