Air quality maintenance – ecosystems both contribute chemicals to and extract chemicals from the atmosphere, influencing many aspects of air quality.
Climate regulation – ecosystems influence climate both locally and globally. At a local scale, changes in land cover can affect both temperature and precipitation. At the global scale, ecosystems play an important role in climate by either sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases.
Water regulation – the timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding, and aquifer recharge can be strongly influenced by changes in land cover.
Erosion control – vegetation cover plays an important role in soil retention and the prevention of landslides.
Water purification and waste treatment – ecosystems can be a source of impurities in fresh water but also can help to filter out and decompose organic wastes introduced into inland waters and coastal and marine ecosystems.
Regulation of human diseases – changes in ecosystems can directly change the abundance of human pathogens, such as cholera, and can alter the abundance of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes.
Biological control – ecosystem changes affect the prevalence of crop and livestock pests and diseases.
Pollination – ecosystem changes affect the distribution, abundance, and effectiveness of pollinators.
Storm protection – the presence of coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests and wetlands can dramatically reduce the damage caused by hurricanes or storm surges.