Managed Realignment Schemes



  • CIRIA C628 – Coastal and Estuarine managed realignment – design issues, London 2004.
  • ComCoast. A wider approach in coastal management (
  • ComCoast Brochure: Innovative flood management solutions and spatial development
  • DEFRA / Environmental Agency. (2008). Managed Realignment Review – Project Report.
  • French, P.W. (2006). “Managed realignment – The developing story of a comparatively new approach to soft engineering.” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 67: 409-423.
  • Friess, D., Moller, I., Spencer, T. (2008). Managed realignment and the re-establishment of saltmarsh habitat, Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. Prepared for the report ‘The Role of Environmental Management and Eco-Engineering in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation’,
  • Garbutt, A. (2008). Restoration of intertidal habitats by the managed realignment of coastal defences, UK. ‘Dunes and Estuaries 2005’ – International Conference on Nature Restoration Practices in European Coastal Habitats, Koksijde, Belgium.
  • Mossman, H.L., A.J. Davy & A. Grant (2012). Does managed coastal realignment create saltmarshes with ‘equivalent biological characteristics’ to natural reference sites? Journal of Applied Ecology DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02198.x.
  • Philip Williams & Associates, Ltd., and P. M. Faber (2004). Design Guidelines for Tidal Wetland Restoration in San Francisco Bay. The Bay Institute and California State Coastal Conservancy, Oakland, CA. 83 pp.
  • Pontee, N. I. (2007). “Realignment in Low-lying coastal areas.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 160(4): 155-166.
  • Royal Haskoning, (2010). Methods and Tools for Coastal Ecosystem Restoration, report ref. 9V5892/R00001/303996/Pbor.
    Royal Haskoning, (2009). Trimley Managed Realignment Site: Annual Monitoring Report 2009, ref. 9S5953/R12009/PBor. December 2009.
  • Rupp, S. and Nicholls, R.J. (2002). Managed realignment of coastal flood defences: a comparison between England and Germany, Proceedings of ‘Dealing with flood risk’, Middlesex University, 10 pp.
  • Williams, P. and Faber, P. (2001). Salt Marsh Restoration Experience in San Francisco Bay. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 27, 203-211.
  • Wolters, M., Garbutt, A. and Bakker, J.P. (2005). Salt Marsh restoration: evaluating the success of de-embankments in north-west Europe, Biological Conservation, 123 (2005) 249-268.


Press moments





Humber Estuary realignment

Ventura, California

Huntington Beach Wetland Restoration