Atmosphere (weather and climate) – shellfish
Temperature: Both heat damage and freezing determine oyster survival. The Pacific Oyster is tolerant to varying temperatures. The upper temperature in which oysters can survive for more than a week is about 30℃ (Bougrier et al., 1995). When exposed to -22℃ for 24 hours 50% of the oysters survive (Strand et al., 2011). Higher and lower mortalities are recorded for oysters enduring low temperatures for longer time periods.
Precipitation: Rain or drought are relatively unimportant for the survival and growth of oyster reefs, as long as salinity does not exceed critical lower or upper bounds.