Creating hanging and floating structures


  • Besix-Van Oord aannemerscombinatie (2013). Verbreding Mondin Amazonehaven (ppt).
  • Broos, E. J., & de Gijt, J. G. (2014). The Demolishing of the EMO Quay Wall in the Amazonehaven. In Port of Rotterdam, HTG Congress.
  • Paalvast, P., 2007. “Pakket van eisen voor hangende substraten en ecoplaten in het Rotterdamse havengebied”. Ecoconsult report to Port of Rotterdam (In Dutch).
  • Paalvast, P. (2015, January). Application of string and rope structures, pole and pontoon hulas, to increase productivity and biodiversity in man-made hard substrate aquatic environments. In Congress on artificial reefs: from materials to ecosystems–ESITC Caen (Vol. 27, pp. 28-29).
  • Project pages ‘Harbour opportunities – Rotterdam (Netherlands)’ and ‘’ Floating marsh as shoreline protection – Houtribsluices, NL’
  • Van Geest, G., Geerling, G. and de Vries, M.B. 2010. Pilot drijvend rietmoeras NMIJ. Deltares report.
  • Wesenbeeck, B. (2009). Mosselen in de haven [online]. Available at: [date of search: 28-02-2019].
  • (factsheets ‘Floating wicker mats’ and ‘Pile and pontoon hulas’)